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人民的峰会来啦!民以食为天

2021-09-25 08:07:29 来源: 世界新闻网 责任编辑:张春 点击图片浏览下一页



 NEW YORK//UNFSS2021

2021年粮食系统峰会


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每天,全球有数亿人饿着肚子上床睡觉;有30 亿人买不起健康饮食;有20 亿人超重或肥胖,另有4.62 亿人却体重不足;与此同时,世界生产的近三分之一粮食被损失或浪费掉。

这些只是联合国秘书长古特雷斯今天在具有里程碑意义的联合国粮食系统峰会开幕式上揭露的一些问题和矛盾。这次峰会将农民和渔民、青年、土著人民、国家元首、政府和其他许多人聚集在一起,以期改变世界的粮食系统,并使世界重回正轨,能够到2030年实现所有17个可持续发展目标。

对于古特雷斯来说,为了人民,为了地球,为了繁荣而“改变粮食系统不仅是可能的,而且是必要的”。


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© 联合国图片 | 联合国秘书长古特雷斯发出倡议


不过,他警告说,新冠疫情使挑战变得更大。

他说,这场大流行病加深了不平等,摧毁了经济,使数百万人陷入极端贫困,并在越来越多的国家罩上了一层饥荒的阴影。

与此同时,古特雷斯表示,世界正在“对自然发动一场战争,从而收获苦涩”,庄稼被毁,收入减少,粮食系统崩溃。

他补充说,粮食系统也产生了三分之一的温室气体排放,并造成了高达80%的生物多样性丧失。

解决方案

在过去的18个月里,148个国家的政府通过全国对话召集企业、社区和民间社会,为粮食系统的未来规划前进的道路。超过10万人参与了解决方案的讨论和辩论。

从这些讨论中,产生了许多建议。古特雷斯从中选择强调三个关键行动领域。


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© 联合国图片 | “为所有人提供优质食品”


Support health and well-being 


支持健康和福祉


首先,需要能够支持所有人的健康和福祉的粮食系统。

古特雷斯指出,营养丰富且多样化的饮食往往过于昂贵或难以获得。他表示很高兴看到许多会员国团结起来支持在学校普及营养餐食。

保护地球

其次,他认为世界需要保护地球的粮食系统。

他说:“在养活不断增长的全球人口的同时保护我们的环境是可能的。参加格拉斯哥气候变化大会的国家需要提出大胆、有针对性的计划,以兑现《巴黎协定》的承诺。对地球的‘战争’必须结束,粮食系统可以帮助我们建立和平。”

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© 联合国图片/Flickr | 卢旺达农民

Support prosperity

支持繁荣

最后,粮食系统需要支持繁荣。

古特雷斯说:“这不仅仅是企业和股东的繁荣,同时也是让农民和食品工人获得的繁荣,是全世界依赖这个行业谋生的数十亿人的繁荣。” 

他彰显了在致命的新冠大流行期间在田间辛勤劳作和运送食物的无私工人。他说:“这些妇女和男子是过去18个月里的无名英雄。”

尽管如此,他说,“这些工人的工资往往过低,甚至受到剥削。”

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© FAO图片/Luis Tato | 女摊贩在肯尼亚的一家市场卖新鲜蔬菜

COVID-19 recovery 

新冠复苏

粮食系统占全球经济的10%,因此,古特雷斯认为它“可以成为从新冠大流行中实现包容和公平复苏的强大驱动力”。

不过,为了实现这一目标,他表示政府需要改变对农业补贴和工人就业支持的方式。

他说,他们还需要重新思考如何看待和评价食物,“食品不仅仅是一种可以交易的商品,它还是每个人应该共享的权利。”

古特雷斯保证,联合国将与国际社会一起为此继续努力,并将在两年内召开一次后续峰会,以评估进展情况。

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© 联合国图片 | “为所有人提供优质食品”

与此同时,古特雷斯表示,需要更多的企业参与到这项工作中,民间社会需要继续发声,推动变革。

他说:“自始至终,我们都需要那些处于我们粮食系统中心的人们的参与,那些家庭农民、牧民、工人、原住民、妇女、年轻人。让我们互相学习,互相启发,共同努力实现可持续发展目标。” 

在活动开幕式上,联合国秘书长粮食系统峰会特使艾格尼丝 .卡利巴塔(Agnes M. Kalibata)说:“粮食系统在消除饥饿、建立更健康的生活和维持我们美丽的星球方面具有不可思议的力量。”

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© 粮食署图片/Gabriela Vivacqua

Experts show concern

 人权专家的担忧

在峰会前夕,三位独立的联合国人权专家专门谈到了关于粮食生产问题的激烈辩论。他们对此次活动不会像承诺的那样成为一场“人民峰会”深表关切。

他们担心峰会可能会将最边缘化和最脆弱的人抛在后面。

据参与峰会筹备工作的这三位人权理事会任命的专家称,峰会“声称具有包容性,但让许多参与者和代表数百万人的500多个组织感到被忽视和失望。”

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© 合国图片 | 促进包容性声明

在一份联合声明中,他们说:“不幸的是,峰会可能会将人权作为一项政策选项而不是一系列法律义务呈现给各国政府。”

专家们担心,峰会有可能为企业服务,“而不是为了保障我们的粮食系统繁荣必不可少的人民,例如工人、小生产者、妇女和土著人民”。

该声明由食物权问题特别报告员迈克尔·法赫里(Michael Fakhri)、人权与环境问题特别报告员大卫·博伊德(David Boyd)和赤贫与人权问题特别报告员奥利维尔·德许特(Olivier de Schutter)签署。

Efforts undermined

发展受挫


联合国粮食及农业组织(粮农组织)发布的新报告明确指出,新冠疫情导致联合国《2030年议程》中所包含的可持续发展目标实施进展受阻,危及数十年来的发展成果。


报告说明,全球实施进度滞后或进展甚微的领域包括: 

疫情可能造成2020年长期饥饿人口新增8300万到1.32亿,消除饥饿的目标更难实现


粮食供应链损失率已达到难以承受的高度(14%),而这尚且发生在粮食进入消费环节之前


农业体系在灾害造成的经济损失中首当其冲


小规模粮食生产者仍然处于不利地位,其中发展中国家的女性生产者即使生产水平高于男性生产者,收入仍不及男性


新冠疫情及相关封锁措施所引发的各类限制导致食品价格波动加剧


维持粮食和农业动植物遗传多样性的进展仍然疲弱


土地权利方面的性别不平等现象普遍存在


歧视性的法律和习俗仍然是妇女获得权属权益的障碍


许多区域仍极度缺水,危及可持续发展的进度

秘书长英语致辞全文

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联合国秘书长

古特雷斯

点此亲启

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THE SECRETARY-GENERAL
REMARKS AT THE FOOD SYSTEMS SUMMIT
23 September 2021

Excellencies, distinguished participants, honoured guests,
 
Food is life.
 
But in countries, communities and households in every corner of the world, this essential need – this human right – is going unfulfilled.
 
Every day, hundreds of millions of people go to bed hungry.
 
Children are starving.
 
Three billion people cannot afford a healthy diet.
 
Two billion are overweight or obese.
 
462 million are underweight.
 
And nearly one-third of all food that is produced is lost or wasted.
 
We must build a world where healthy and nutritious food is available and affordable for everyone, everywhere.
 
Yet we know the challenge before us. It is not new.
 
But the COVID-19 pandemic has made this challenge much greater.
 
It has deepened inequalities.
 
Decimated economies.
 
Plunged millions into extreme poverty.
 
And raised the spectre of famine in a growing number of countries.
 
At the same time, we are waging a war against nature – and reaping the bitter harvest.
 
Ruined crops. Dwindling incomes. And failing food systems.
 
Food systems also generate one-third of all greenhouse gas emissions.
 
And they’re responsible for up to 80 per cent of biodiversity loss.
 
At the same time, food systems can and must play a leading role in addressing all of these challenges to realise the Sustainable Development Goals by 2030.
 
We know that well.
 
Over the last 18 months, you’ve been part of a remarkable global engagement.
 
As the pandemic physically pushed us apart, the preparations for this Summit brought us together.
 
Through national dialogues, governments gathered together businesses, communities and civil society to chart pathways for the future of food systems across 148 countries.
 
Over 100,000 people came together to discuss and debate solutions – many of which are now being shared at this Summit.
 
You injected new life into multilateralism.
 
And you are leading the way to food systems that can drive the global recovery in three fundamental ways.
 
For people. For the planet. And for prosperity.
 
First – we need food systems that support the health and well-being of all people.
 
Malnutrition, hunger and famine are not forces of nature.
 
They are the result of the actions – or inactions – of all of us.
 
As a global community, we need to ramp up emergency food and nutrition systems in areas affected by conflict or climate emergencies.
 
We need to invest in early-warning famine prevention systems.
 
And we need to shock-proof all of the systems that contribute to nutrition – from food systems themselves, to health, water and sanitation.
 
Nutritious and diverse diets are often too costly or inaccessible.
 
This can lead to poor consumer choices – or no choice at all.
 
I urge governments and businesses to work together to increase access to healthy diets, including by incentivizing new behaviours.
 
For instance, I’m pleased to see many Member States rallying around universal access to nutritious meals in schools.
 
A great example of how social protection can support resilience, food security and the rights of children and young people.
 
Second — we need food systems that protect our planet.
 
It is possible to feed a growing global population while also safeguarding our environment.
 
It takes sustainable consumption and production methods and nature-based solutions.
 
It takes the smart, sustainable management of natural resources — from farms to fisheries.
 
And it takes countries coming to COP26 in Glasgow with bold, targeted plans to keep the promise of the Paris Agreement.
 
The war on our planet must end, and food systems can help us build that peace.
 
Throughout, we need to strengthen the resilience of local food systems to external shocks, like conflict, climate change and pandemics.
 
Third and finally — we need systems that can support prosperity.
 
Not just the prosperity of businesses and shareholders.
 
But the prosperity of farmers and food workers — and indeed, the billions of people worldwide who depend on this industry for their livelihoods.
 
Working in the fields, transporting food to market and to our homes.
 
And doing so during an extraordinary period of lockdowns and transportation constraints.
 
These women and men have been the unsung heroes of the last 18 months.
 
Too often, these workers are underpaid — even exploited.
 
Yet these systems and the people who keep them up-and-running represent 10 per cent of the global economy.
 
They can be a powerful driver for an inclusive and equitable recovery from COVID-19.
 
But only if we change how we support them.
 
As a global community, we need to shift our approach on agricultural subsidies, and employment support for workers.
 
And we need to re-think how we see and value food — not simply as a commodity to be traded, but as a right that every person shares.
 
Excellencies,
 
Above all, meeting our goals across these three principles depends on partnerships.
 
Only by working together can we maintain the extraordinary momentum generated from this Summit.
 
The United Nations family is proud to be taking this journey with you and we pledge our full support.
 
The entire system – led by our Rome-based agencies – will continue to champion this vital effort.
 
Our Resident Coordinators and UN Country Teams will continue to lend their leadership and support at the country level.
 
And we will continue this journey together, convening again in two years to take stock of our progress and preserve the energy through the Decade of Action.
 
We also need more businesses to join this work – from food producers, to the transportation and marketing industries.
 
We need the advocacy and voice of civil society to continue calling for change.
 
And throughout, we need the engagement of the people at the centre of our food systems.
 
Family farmers, herders, workers, Indigenous Peoples, women, young people.
 
Let’s learn from each other – and be inspired by one another – as we work together to achieve the Sustainable Development Goals.
 
Excellencies,
 
Dear friends,
 
Food is life – and food is hope.
 
Change in food systems is not only possible, it is necessary.
 
For people. For our planet. For prosperity.
 
This is our moment.
 
Let’s get to work.
 
And thank you.

































































































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